Northwest of Termez, close to the town of Shirabad, is the Mausoleum of Khoja Abu Isa Muhammad Imam Termezi, a significant figure in Islam as he travelled across the Islamic world for 30 years collecting sayings of the Prophet to contribute to the Hadith, the holiest book after the Qu'ran. The tomb is less impressive than one might expect, but it is still an important pilgrimage site.
The architectural complex of mausoleum of Hakim al-Termezi formed near the northwest corner of the citadel of Termez for centuries. In this sparsely western part of Old Termez is the tomb of the IX century scholar, founder of the dervish order "Hakimia" Abu Abdullah Muhammad Bini Ali Hakim at-Termizi, revered as the spiritual patron of the ancient city.
According to the book of Egyptian sheik Abdulfattoh Baraka, At-Termezi lived a long life and died at the age of 115 years in Termez in 932 and was buried in the medieval citadel of Termez. Over time, over the grave was erected a mausoleum became a popular place of pilgrimage. Here to worship at the sacred tomb come not only locals but also pilgrims from other countries in the Muslim world.
In the XIX century on the site of the temple was built four-domed building of mud brick. In the mausoleum burial was found on three-tier white carved marble tombstone "Sagana", covered with beautiful carvings. At the end of the tombstone epitaph inscribed: "In the name of the person to whom praise. This markad Shaykh, Imam, scholar, saint Abu Abdullah Muhammad Bini Ali Hakim Termizi, may God have mercy on him. He was the greatest of the great Sayyid, possessed a high eloquence, wrote famous works and has made remarkable sayings. He was a friend of Abu Abdullah Bukhari, the author's book "Sahih". Yes, have mercy on him. Among the shaykhs, he studied law better than lawyers hanafian, may God have mercy on him. Died, let God save him, in the year 255 / 869 ".
Later in the shape of the ensemble has changed. The main building of the mausoleum was torn down, on the remains of its walls built new from the brick. Rebuilt also the building adjacent to the east. They were all raised on a platform. Within the walls of "kari khana" arranged narrow vertical through-slot that went round the mausoleum, so they could hear the voice of "kari", reading the funeral prayer. The tombs were joined a broad arched opening. Fencing of the yard and brick, they are also faced with the wall of old Sufi cell. To the south of the farm buildings are located “khanaka”. These on ceramic "kuburs" (piped) water came. It prepared the food for its inhabitants and pilgrims.
In the late 50s XX century were carried out restoration work and detailed research, and in the 80s was restored decor of the main mausoleum. In 1990, UNESCO celebrated the 1000th anniversary of this esteemed Sheikh and were confined to this reconstruction of the object.
The studies revealed that the mausoleum, occupying a relatively small area (about 590 sq. m.), was one of the most complex of the medieval monuments of the number of buildings erected over the centuries, one above the other. Layers are composed of masonry and adobe brick, interspersed with numerous graves, decorative items and household ceramics. Irregularities of the relief, reconstruction and repairs, burial chambers talk about the history of the ensemble. Prior to the first buildings are located a Buddhist temple. From a preserved base of columns, fragments of parts, burnt bricks, the remains of aqueducts and household ceramics Kushan period.
Since gaining independence, the works on restoration and improvement of this unique monument of culture. Craftsmen from all over the country have contributed to the restoration of the architectural complex. Work time-consuming, because it was necessary to preserve the original appearance. And judging by the results, it is succeeded. Significantly expanded the surrounding area of the complex, it is now landscaped, planted trees and flowers. Installed special lighting. Thus, the original features of the ancient monuments of architecture complemented with new bright colors today. Undoubtedly, this will allow a better study and understand the history of the region, which has always aroused great interest worldwide.
The complex was built in the museum which exhibits rare artifacts found during archaeological excavations carried out simultaneously with the restoration.
Abu Isa Muhammad ibn Isa as-Sulami ad-Darir al Bughi at-Termizi (was born 824 – died 8 October 892), often referred to as Imam at-Tirmizi, was an Islamic scholar and collector of hadith who wrote al-Jami as-Sahih (known as Jami at-Tirmizi), one of the six canonical hadith compilations in Sunni Islam. He also wrote Shamaili Muhammadiyah (popularly known as Shamail at-Tirmizi), a compilation of hadiths concerning the person and character of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad (SAV).
Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmizi was born during the reign of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun. His year of birth has been reported as 209 AH (824/825). Adh-Dhahabi only states that at-Tirmizi was born near the year 210 AH (825/826), thus some sources give his year of birth as 210 AH. Some sources indicate that he was born in Mecca (Siddiqi says he was born in Mecca in 206 AH (821/822)) while others say he was born in Termez, in what is now southern Uzbekistan. The stronger opinion is that he was born in Termez. Specifically, he was born in one of its suburbs, the village of Bugh (hence the nisbats "at-Tirmizi" and "al-Bughi").
At-Tirmidhi began the study of hadith at the age of 20. From the year 235 AH (849/850) he traveled widely in Khurasan, Iraq, and the Hijaz in order to collect hadith
At the time, Khurasan, at-Tirmizi's native land, was a major center of learning, being home to a large number of muhaddiths. Other major centers of learning visited by at-Tirmidhi were the Iraqi cities of Kufa and Basra. At-Tirmizi reported hadith from 42 Kufan teachers. In his Jami, he used more reports from Kufan teachers than from teachers of any other town.
At-Tirmizi was a pupil of al-Bukhari, who was based in Khurasan. Adh-Dhahabi wrote, "His knowledge of hadith came from al-Bukhari." At-Tirmizi mentioned al-Bukhari's name 114 times in his Jami. He used al-Bukhari's Kitab at-Tarikh as a source when mentioning discrepancies in the text of a hadith or its transmitters, and praised al-Bukhari as being the most knowledgable person in Iraq or Khurasan in the science of discrepancies of hadith. When mentioning the rulings of jurists, he followed al-Bukhari's practice of not mentioning the name of Abu Hanifah. Because he never received a reliabe chain of narrators to mention Abu Hanifa's decrees, he would instead attribute them to "some people of Kufa." Al-Bukhari held at-Tirmizi in high regard as well. He is reported to have told at-Tirmizi, "I have profited more from you than you have from me" and in his Sahih he narrated two hadith from at-Tirmizi.
At-Tirmizi also narrated some hadiths from Abu Dawud, and one from Muslim. Muslim also narrated one hadith from at-Tirmizi in his own Sahih.
A.J. Wensinck mentions Ahmad ibn Hanbal as among at-Tirmizi's teachers. However, Hoosen states that according to the most reliable sources, at-Tirmidhi never went to Baghdad, nor did he attend any lectures of Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Furthermore, at-Tirmizi never directly narrates from Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Jami.
Several of at-Tirmizi's teachers also taught al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and an-Nasai.
At-Tirmizi was blind in the last two years of his life, according to adh-Dhahabi. His blindness is said to have been the consequence of excessive weeping, either due to fear of God or over the death of al-Bukhari.
He died on Monday night, 13 Rajab 279 AH (Sunday night, on 8 October 892) in Bugh.
At-Tirmizi is buried on the outskirts of Sherobod, a 60 kilometers north of Termez in Uzbekistan. In Termez he is locally known as Abu Isa at-Termezi or "Termez Ota" ("Father of Termez").