During the reign of Abdulla-khan II (1557-1597) the architectural complex Kosh Madrasah was built comprising of two facing each other madrasahs. The first one is small Modari-khan madrasah, built about 1567 in the honor of Abdulla-khan's mother; the second and the rather more impressive building carries the name of Abdulla-khan and was built in 1588-1590 and was built for himself. You can see where his priorities lay.
"Kosh" means "double", "paired"; the buildings stand in front of each other on different sides of a narrow street.
Modari-khan madrasah was built in the honor of mother of Abdullakhan II, and thus obtained its name which is translated from from Farsi as "the mother of khan".
The building is constructed at some angle to the road, therefore the construction does not have any symmetry. By structure this is a "typical" seminary with the dormitory for students and lecturers around the front yard, public halls of the mosque and auditoriums by the entrance of the building. The main facade of Modari-khan madrasah is impressively decorated with the paintings made by brick mosaic that form various geometrical ornaments. The design of the facade fill the tympanum made of curvy majolica plates representing the flowers. The entire artistic design of madrasah looks very restrained.
Abdullah-khan madrasah built in 1588-1590, is one of the most outstanding objects of Central Asian architecture. The main principle of the structural building remained unchanged - the premises are located around the front yard. However, the construction is much more complicated: the main entrance has a tall portal which is linked to the wings with two-stored premises and the gallery on the upper floor. Impressive size of the facade and the variety of the decorative ornaments grant the building with colorful and majestic view. In bright sun light, the cold tones of majolica plates (blue, green and white) shine very brightly. The doors of madrasah are designed with astonishing artistic input, gathered from separate parts of the tree with thin carvings and without a single nail.
The architecture of this building was controversial (one might go as far as to say heretical) as rather than being orientated towards Mecca, its position is determined by the cardinal points, the facade mirroring that of the Modar-i Khan Madrassa opposite. Abdullah Khan is buried inside, his tomb lying on the north-south axis as is traditional for an Islamic burial; the building, one might argue, was laid out not for the glory of God, but for the convenience of Abdullah Khan.
Abdullah-khan madrasah is one of the biggest in Bukhara after Kukeldash and Mir Arab.
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